Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in education and enhancement of learning levels of children. SSA provides for a variety of interventions, including inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling facilities, construction of schools and additional classrooms, toilets and drinking water, provisioning for teachers, periodic teacher training and academic resource support, textbooks and support for learning achievement. These provisions need to be aligned with the legally mandated norms and standards and free entitlements mandated by the RTE act.
The new law provides a justifiable legal framework that entitles all children between the age of 6-14 years free and compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education. It provides for children’s right to an education of equitable quality, based on principles of equity and non-discrimination. Most importantly, it provides for children’s right to an education that is free from fear, stress and anxiety.
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
This scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality. It is envisaged to achieve an enrollment rate of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 at secondary stage within 5 years of implementation of the scheme by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation. The other objectives include improving quality of education imparted at secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017, i.e., by the end of 12th Five Year Plan and achieving universal retention by 2020. With this objective, the RMSA Society for the implementation of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Programme has been registered under Societies Registration Act 1960 in the State of Punjab. It has been named as Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Authority, Punjab. Date of Notification of RMSA Society, Punjab : 29 January, 2009.
General Body for RMSA is association of 29 members. The affairs of the Authority are administered, subject to Rules and Regulations and orders of the Authority, by an Executive Committee, which is association of 14 members. President of both Committees is Honorable Chief Minister, Punjab and Member Secretary is Director General School Education-cum-Director Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, Punjab.
Important physical facilities provided under the scheme are:
(i) Additional class rooms, (ii) Laboratories, (iii) Libraries, (iv) Art and crafts room, (v) Toilet blocks, (vi) Drinking water provisions and (vii) Residential Hostels for Teachers in remote areas, (vii) Computer Rooms, (viii) Girls Activity Room
Important quality interventions provided under the scheme are:
(i) Appointment of additional teachers to reduce PTR to 30:1, (ii) focus on Science, Math and English education, (iii) In-service training of teachers, (iv) science laboratories, (v) ICT enabled education, (vi) curriculum reforms; and (vii) teaching learning reforms.
Important equity interventions provided in the scheme are:
(i) Special focus in micro planning (ii) Preference to Ashram schools for upgradation (iii) Preference to areas with concentration of SC/ST/Minority for opening of schools (iv) Special enrolment drive for the weaker section (v) more female teachers in schools; and (vi) Separate toilet blocks for girls.
Implementation mechanism of the Scheme
The scheme is being implemented by the State government societies established for implementation of the scheme. The central share is released to the implementing agency directly. The applicable State share is also released to the implementing agency by the respective State Governments.